Anemia is a medical condition characterized by the deficiency of healthy red blood cells (RBCs). As a result, enough oxygen cannot be carried out to the body’s tissues, leading to tiredness and fatigue in the person. There are many forms of anemia. Some of them are common, while others are rare. In this article, we discuss the latter.
1. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)
Myelodysplastic syndrome is a rare form of anemia caused when the bone marrow is damaged and cannot make sufficient healthy RBCs. It is a form of cancer that can be inherited or diagnosed after being treated with another type of cancer with chemotherapy or radiation.
2. Sideroblastic anemia
This is another rare form of anemia. In this form of the condition, the infected person’s body cannot use the iron to make hemoglobin. Therefore, the iron accumulates in the body, leading to the build-up of abnormal RBCs, called sideroblasts. This type of anemia is further divided into two types:
- Acquired sideroblastic anemia: caused by the exposure to a few drugs or chemicals
- Hereditary sideroblastic anemia: caused when the normal procedure of hemoglobin production is interrupted by a gene mutation
3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
This form of anemia occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys healthy RBCs faster than new ones can be made. It could be caused by the administration of certain medicines or if one is suffering from other types of autoimmune diseases.
4. Diamond Blackfan anemia
Due to changes in the gene, the bone marrow does not make enough RBCs in Diamond Blackfan anemia.
5. Fanconi anemia
Fanconi anemia is an inherited form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces fewer RBCs. Subsequently, with this type of anemia, one also has the chance of being diagnosed with cancer.
6. Megaloblastic anemia
In megaloblastic anemia, the infected person’s bone marrow creates abnormal shaped RBCs that are not mature enough. As a result, these RBCs cannot carry out their function properly. Symptoms in this type of rare form of anemia do not occur immediately. In some cases, it might take years for the symptoms to show up.